Legends Of Respiratory Care
* Scientific achievements and/or inventions of historical significance that revolutionized, or remarkably enhanced the delivery of respiratory care;
* Recognized professional achievements related to the clinical practice, education, or the science of respiratory care, publication of scientific articles or other activities bringing significant, sustained career recognition;
* Sustained personal service, representation, or advocacy on behalf of the respiratory care profession, and/or individual’s creativity or ideas that resulted in historic advancement of the profession or its professional societies; and
* Singularly distinctive individual actions during historic professional events, above and beyond reasonable expectations, that resulted in advancement of respiratory care and/or resolution of a significant crisis or issue facing the profession.
Nominations are solicited from the AARC, ARCF, CoARC and NBRC. Nominations must be supported by two-thirds of the agency’s governing board. After receipt of the combined roster of nominees, a review committee elects the requisite number of Legends of Respiratory Care.
Bennett founded V. Ray Bennett and Associates Ventilator Company in Santa Monica CA in the early 1940s. His valve and early ventilator devices were initially used in the treatment of polio in southern California and significantly improved the survival of polio patients compared to polio patients ventilated in iron lungs.
In 1957, the Puritan Company acquired V. Ray Bennett and Associates Ventilator Company and emerged as Puritan Bennett Respiration Products, Inc.
Following his service in the Army Air Corps where he was a technical air training officer, Forrest Bird earned his medical degree and began developing a number of medical devices. In 1955, he developed the Bird Universal Medical Respirator. A number of Bird ventilators were introduced including the Babybird respirator in1969.
Dr. Bird was a recipient of the Jimmy A. Young Medal, the AARC’s highest honor.
President George W. Bush presented Dr. Bird the Presidential Citizens Medal in December 2008. President Barach Obama presented Dr. Bird the National Medal of Science and Technology, the nation’s highest honor for science and technology in October 2009.
Dr. Egan authored the first comprehensive textbook on inhalation therapy. Fundamentals of Inhalation Therapy was published by Mosby in 1969. It contained 474 pages. Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, a standard textbook in most respiratory care programs, is now in its 10th edition.
Emerson invented major modifications to the iron lung respirator and added important safety features. A patent dispute with Drinker resulted. (Not only did Drinker lose the lawsuit, Drinker’s patent for the iron lung respirator was rescinded.) Emerson’s original iron lung,” Old Number One,” is displayed in the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.
Giordano was a true visionary for the Association and the respiratory care profession and was instrumental in leading the AARC into the international arena.
Among the numerous awards Giordano has received are the Jimmy A.Young Medal, the highest honor awarded by the AARC and the Héctor León Garza Achievement Award for Excellence in International Respiratory Care.
Dr. Helmholz was actively involved in all aspects of the respiratory care profession: accreditation, credentialing, and education. Dr. Helmholz was a recipient of the Jimmy A. Young Medal, the highest honor awarded by the AARC. Dr. Helmholz was a published poet and a beloved, long-time judge of the AARC’s Sputum Bowl.
She was a CRNA and served as a program director of the Franciscan Skemp School of Nurse Anesthesia in La Crosse, WI. Sister Yvonne served on the AAIT Board of Directors and served as Executive Director of the American Registry of Inhalation Therapists. The NBRC’s highest award in named in her honor: the Sister Mary Yvonne Jenn, CRNA, RRT Lifetime Achievement Award.
Brother Maher was the first person to serve as Assistant Chairman (now Vice-President) of the ITA and served multiple elected terms as President of the Association:1949-1951 and 1953-1954. Brother Maher received the Jimmy A. Young Medal, the highest honor awarded by the AARC.
He was the first to hold the office of Chairman (now President) of the ITA in 1947-1948. Kneeland received the Jimmy A. Young Medal, the highest honor awarded by the AARC.
Dr. Petty was Professor Emeritus of Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver and Emeritus Professor of Medicine at National Jewish Medical & Research Center.
Dr. Petty and his colleagues were among the first to research ARDS and the first to use PEEP in its treatment. He also was instrumental in using long-term home oxygen therapy for the management of COPD and for demonstrating the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programs. He was a true patient advocate and answered questions from patients in Ask Dr. Tom on the AARC’s Your Lung Health website.
Dr. Petty was recognized as a FAARC in 1999. He was a recipient of the Jimmy A. Young Medal, the highest honor awarded by the AARC.
Dr. Burton’s major contributions to respiratory care have been in the educational arena through his writings and service related to accreditation of respiratory care programs as evidenced by his participation with the Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care (CoARC), its predecessor, the Joint Review Committee for Respiratory Therapy Education (JRCRTE) and the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP).
Dr. Burton co-authored a comprehensive textbook for respiratory care students in 1977. This book quickly became a required text for programs, and literally thousands of students learned the essential aspects of the practice of respiratory care by reading and implementing the recommendations offered in the three editions of this text. He then turned his attention to promoting Respiratory Therapist Driven Protocols in two textbooks authored in conjunction with Judy Tietsort. Dr. Burton’s most recent writings have been the Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Disease with Terry Des Jardins. This text was first introduced in 1994 and is now in its seventh edition.
In his role as Medical Director for the Respiratory Care Program at Kettering College in Dayton OH for 33 years, Dr. Burton has participated directly in the education of hundreds of respiratory therapist. He has participated in probably 400 student case study presentations. He also serves as a mentor for the faculty at Kettering College, many of whom have gone on to serve in leadership positions with the AARC, CoARC, and their organizations.
Service to program accreditation continues to be a passion of Dr. Burton. His active participation with the JRCRTE began in 1976 as an ACCP representative. Since that time, he has chaired subcommittees for Standards Revisions, participated in many Site Visits, and participated in the transition from the JRCRTE to CoARC. Today he remains active as a member of CoARC’s Post Professional Education Committee. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP).
Dr. Lawrence took over the RRT Oral Examinations in 1969. He worked tirelessly from his home office to “give the RRT Oral Examinations back to the candidates”. From 1969 through 1978, he scheduled thousands of oral examination sessions for candidates and was a staunch candidate advocate. All examiners were well familiar with the Pre-Exam meeting the evening before the exams began the next morning. His instructions were simple, "This is the candidate's exam and if that's not your purpose for being here, you may go back home with my blessings". He was true to his word and removed examiners for failing to follow those instructions. He served as the Executive Secretary of the NBRC in 1969 and charged $1 per year, compensation he never accepted. Thus, he was the second chief executive of what is now the NBRC.
Dr. Lawrence’s service to the profession and the credentialing system continued with his appointment to the NBRC as a trustee from 1974 through 1986 as a representative of the American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA). He was elected by his colleagues on the NBRC to serve as the organization’s President in 1985. His contributions to respiratory therapy were witnessed by several generations and will never be forgotten.
He was a recipient of the Jimmy A. Young Medal in 1979 and was also received honorary membership in the AARC. He served as a trustee for the ARCF for many years into the early 2000s. The William F. Miller Post-Graduate Education Recognition Award is named in his honor and established through his endowment.
His research interests have been in complications of mechanical ventilation and ICU care, particularly their clinical epidemiology and risk factors; respiratory care techniques, particularly clinical efficacy, cost-effectiveness, CQI, and educational issues; and writing, editing, and publishing in clinical medicine.
Dr. Pierson has been either the principal author or contributor to 118 publications. He has been a huge supporter of the field of Respiratory Therapy over the years. He was Medical Director for the Respiratory Care Department at Harborview Medical Center for over 30 years. He mentored the Respiratory Therapists there to utilize protocols, publish research, and utilize evidence-based medicine.
He became the editor for Respiratory Care Journal in 1998 and continued in that role for 10 years. His was committed to guiding the profession to embrace the research and evidence based medicine that has given the Respiratory Care Journal the recognition to be included in Pubmed. He continues as Editor Emeritus for the Respiratory Care Journal.
Dr. Pierson has advised and served on numerous AARC committees. Dr. Pierson was awarded honorary membership in the AARC and received the fellow designation (FAARC). He received the Jimmy A Young Medal in 2005.
The David J. Pierson, MD Award for Excellence in Education and Mentoring is named in his honor at the University of Washington. Dr. Pierson retired from the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Washington in 2011 and is currently an Emeritus Professor of Medicine.
Jimmy Young served as Chief Inhalation Therapist at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He earned the ARIT (registered Inhalation therapist) credential in 1965 and was assigned #263. He served in several roles including director of the education program at Northeastern University in Boston and became director of the Respiratory Therapy Department at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1970.
Along with Dean Crocker, Jimmy Young co-authored Principles and Practices of Inhalation Therapy, a textbook that was published in 1970.
He was elected to the Association's Board of Directors in 1968. He served the 22nd President of the American Association of Respiratory Therapy in 1973.
In 1975, he was serving as an NBRC Board of Trustee and member of the Executive Committee when he passed away unexpectedly.
The AARC presents the Jimmy A. Young Medal, the Association's highest honor, during the AARC International Congress.
Vijay was recognized as an AARC Fellow in 2000 and was awarded AARC Life Membership in 2009. He has been active on the AARC International Committee since 1990. He has lectured in over 20 countries. and has been instrumental in expanding respiratory care education in India. He has coauthored several textbooks on mechanical ventilation and contributed chapters to several others.
Prior to assuming his position with AARC, Ray served as a volunteer to the association, most notably chairing the then Publications Committee from 1971 to 1982, which at that time had oversight for the journal. One of Ray’s initial actions, in 1973 and in consort with the journal’s newly hired Editor-in-Chief Phil Kittredge, was to establish the first-ever Editorial Board. Mindful of Phil’s commitment to scientific inquiry and scholarly dissemination of research findings, Ray began a behind the scenes search to identify established researchers and authors to populate the Editorial Board. Such foresight elevated the stature of the journal and by association, positioned the profession as a logical companion, and in some cases, an alternative to, heretofore physician-only journals such as CHEST and THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE. Were it not for the cross-pollination resulting from Ray’s efforts, it is doubtful that the profession would enjoy today the enthusiastic support and active involvement of internationally recognized physicians.
Another major contribution of Ray was to establish the Journal Conferences, a legacy that stands today in which acknowledged experts are convened to focus on a specific topics of clinical relevance, with the resultant manuscripts published in RESPIRATORY CARE.
Aside from his lasting legacy as a primary contributor of the development of our journal, Ray was also responsible for the launch of several other important initiatives that further advanced the profession. In 1978, he worked with then AARC President Gary Gerard to form the Specialty Sections, and years later coordinated efforts to convert AARC’s clinical practice guidelines from expert opinion to evidence based.
Lastly, under Ray’s thoughtful and deliberate direction for three decades as AARC Director of Conventions, the AARC’s Annual Congress is now the world’s largest educational event for respiratory therapists. Furthermore, the annual Summer Forum has become a “go-to” event where managers and educators meet to develop strategies and tactics to address relevant issues and challenges to the profession.
In addition, Dr. Oslick served as Chair of over 20 committees for the NBRC and served as a member of over 35 NBRC committees.
Dr. Oslick has been designated Emeritus Trustee of the NBRC in recognition for his years of service and commitment to respiratory care credentialing.
Dr. Oslick was designated a Fellow (FAARC) of the AARC in 2007.
He is a past recipient of the NBRC's Albert H. Andrews Award and the NRBC's Sister Yvonne Jenn Award.
Mr. Ruppel served on the NBRC Board of Trustees for 24 years, including 4 years as President. During his service on the NBRC Board, he chaired 12 committees and served on 18 other committees.
He authored nine editions of "Ruppel's Manual of Pulmonary Function Testing" as well as numerous articles in the Respiratory Care jorunal.
Gregg was inducted in the first class of AARC Fellows (FAARC) in 1998. He is also the recipient of the NBRC's Robert H. Miller Award and the NBRC's Sister Yvonne Jenn Award.
In 1954 he transitioned to become director of the Hospital’s fledgling Inhalation Therapy Department. Fortunately the administration honored Jim’s frequent requests to attend national meetings. Besides learning more about clinical aspects of the profession, he began to volunteer to serve on various boards and committees. In 1955, he joined the American Association for Inhalation Therapy ( now AARC) and served its Board of Directors from 1956-60. Jim’s insights allowed him to see the importance of elevating the new professions’ standing through more rigorous educational standards, a formal credentialing and/or licensure system and delivery of improved technical services. He had the skills and energy to act on those insights.
In 1960 Jim was on the ground floor during formation of the American Registry for inhalation Therapy (now the NBRC) and become its first secretary. He was one of the first twelve people to pass the pilot exam administered in November of 1960. But because his name started with “W” and the ARIT’s incorporation was delayed until April of 1961, his registry number was 28. [Jim’s own signature was on his RRT certificate; students thought that was very “cool.”
In 1964 he moved to Pennsylvania to become Technical Director of the School of Inhalation Therapists at the Health Center Hospitals in Pittsburgh and instructor with the University of Pittsburgh. The “father of CPR and ICU medicine,” Dr. Peter Safar was his medical director.
Jim served as the first editor of the AAIT's journal, Inhalation Therapy which began in 1956. He continued to serve as journal editor until 1967. Jim was also involved in writing textbooks and was a chapter contributor and editor the textbook Respiratory Therapy by Dr. Peter Safar’s.
Jim’s career as an educator in respiratory care began in Rochester and evolved further in Pittsburg. A big change came in 1967 when he moved to Columbia, Missouri to establish the first baccalaureate degree program west of the Mississippi. Jim served as the "Mizzou" program director and teacher until 1980.
The work Jim did with the credentialing system likely provided some background for the contributions he made to the educational accreditation system. He served on the Joint Review Committee for Inhalation Therapy Education (JRCRTE) from 1969-1971.
Dr. Avery became especially interested in pulmonary medicine following her diagnosis with tuberculosis shortly after she graduated from medical school in 1952.
In the late 1950s, Dr. Avery was a pioneer in research that helped lead to the discovery of surfactant deficiency in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature babies and led research in surfactant replacement therapy.
Dr. Avery had a strong interest in helping train young physicians, particularly in pulmonary disease and neonatology. She was the first woman to chair a clinical department at Harvard Medical School.
In 1990–91, Dr. Avery was the President of the American Pediatric Society. She was active in numerous national and international professional associations and organizations, including UNICEF.
As a lung specialist, Dr. Bone published some 1,000 scientific articles and wrote or edited 56 books. His “Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine” went through several editions.
Dr. Bone was awarded AARC Honorary Membership.
•NBRC Robert Miller
•AARC Life membership
•AARC Jimmy A Young Medal
Peg also has many respiratory publications to her name as well as numerous speaking engagements on respiratory therapy related topics and the issues that face the profession. She has countless hours of volunteerism not only to respiratory therapist and students but also to the patients we serve. Peg has been a mentor to new therapists and provides a calming voice to the patients.
In 1947, immediately out of fellowship training at the Cushing VAMC in Framingham, MA, Dr. Aranson became its Chief of Pulmonary Medicine, an advancement unheard of in those days. Upon his arrival in 1949 at Maine Medical Center (MMC), the state’s largest hospital, Dr. Aranson founded Maine’s first Pulmonary Division, Pulmonary Function Laboratory, and Inhalation Therapy Department (as it was called in those days). He hired Maine’s first PFT tech, Virginia Charlton, and Maine’s first respiratory therapist, Robert H. Miller, RRT, the first RT to become president of the NBRC and for whom the NBRC award is named. Mr. Miller was director of MMC’s Respiratory Therapy Department for more than 25 years.
In the 1950s and 1960s, Dr. Aranson obtained grant money from the federal government and from the York and Cumberland County TB & Health Associations to fund projects at MMC for the study of obstructive lung diseases and the measurement of pulmonary function in health and disease, in which respiratory therapists were intimately involved. These grant monies funded expansion of the then Inhalation Therapy Department, training of respiratory therapists and pulmonary function technologists, establishment of a new Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and development of the state’s first TB Clinic, which he founded in 1949 and directed until his retirement. He also created the Respiratory Therapy Department, Pulmonary Function Laboratory, and Maine’s first ICU at Portland's Mercy Hospital.
Dr. Aranson was one of the first physicians in the country to use streptomycin, the first drug used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). As Maine’s chief TB consultant, Dr. Aranson helped develop protocols for the modern antibiotic treatment of TB, as well as TB control and prevention protocols for the State of Maine Department of Health, involving RTs in the process. He served as TB consultant during his entire medical career in Maine.
Dr. Aranson had a long and prolific alliance with the American Lung Association of Maine, including involvement in anti-smoking campaigns and TB prevention and control, in which RTs participated. In the 1960s, Dr. Aranson was responsible for the removal of cigarette vending machines at MMC, a movement far ahead of his time that spread throughout the state.
As Director of Medical Education at MMC, Dr. Aranson trained hundreds of students of respiratory therapy, nursing, and medicine, as well as residents and pulmonary fellows, many of whom, because of his encouragement, chose to settle in Maine, including in underserved areas, to care for the state’s citizens. In the training of these students, Dr. Aranson inculcated care for the patient first and foremost, a legendary philosophy for which he is remembered by all who came under his tutelage.
In summary, Dr. Albert Aranson was truly a legend as Maine’s pioneer of Respiratory Therapy and Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, just one piece of meaningful, consequential, and historical impact on respiratory care nationwide.
Dr. Hess is Editor in Chief of RESPIRATORY CARE, the peer-reviewed international journal of the American Association for Respiratory Care. He is also a member of the Editorial Boards for the Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery and Simulation in Healthcare. Dr. Hess is the first author of “Essentials of Mechanical Ventilation” (3rd edition in preparation) and “Respiratory Care Principles and Practice” (3rd edition). He has had leadership roles and served on committees in national and international professional organizations. He is also part of the management team of the Respiratory Care Department at the Massachusetts General Hospital, which is arguably the best respiratory care department in the country, with a staff of about 100 persons. For more than 10 years, he has had a sustained national and international reputation as a leader and innovator in the field of mechanical ventilation specifically, and in the wider field of respiratory care. This has had significant influence on practice as a result of his teaching, scholarship and innovation.
Dr. Jobe received the Ross Award in Research from the Western Society for Pediatric Research in 1984 and the E Mead Johnson Award for Pediatric Research in 1986. He received the Arvo Ylppö Medal for Pediatric Research from the Finnish Pediatric Societies in Helsinki in 2002. He was voted the George Simbruner Lecturing Award at New Frontiers in Neonatology in Innsbruck, Austria in 2005. Dr. Jobe was elected to the Institute of Medicine (National Academy of Medicine) in 2007. He gave the William Silverman Lectureship at the PAS meeting in 2009. He received the Thomas Hazinski Distinguished Service Award from the Society for Pediatric Research in 2010. In 2011, he was recognized by LA BioMed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center as a Legend for service to Harbor-UCLA. He received the Virginia Apgar Award from the AAP for 2011. He also was recognized by the Founders Award from the Midwestern Society for Pediatric Research in 2012. In 2017 he received the Mary Ellen Avery Neonatal Research Award from the SPR and the APS.
In 1952, Dr. Levine held the position of President of the Inhalation Therapy Association (ITA). In our 70+ years of existence, Dr. Levine is the only physician to be President of our Association.
In the 1770s, Priestley began his research into the nature and properties of gases. He began examining all the “airs” that might be released from different substances. In his pursuits, Priestley identified eight gases and this record has never been equaled before or after his discoveries. Priestley’s most important gas discovery was what he called “dephlogisticated air” or oxygen as we know it. The name “oxygen” would be coined later by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. His work appears to have been the predecessor to what the world would come to know as photosynthesis and respiration.
Some timeline history of Joseph Priestley:
March 13, 1733 - Born in Birstall Fieldhead, near Leeds, Yorkshire, England.
1752 – Entered the Dissenting Academy at Daventry, Northamptonshire to be educated in philosophy, science, languages and literature. It is here where he became a radical freethinker in religion.
1755-1761 – Ministered at Needham Market, Suffolk and at Nantwich, Cheshire.
1762 – Ordained a Dissenting minister. Married to Mary Wilkinson (they had one daughter and three sons).
1765 – Met Benjamin Franklin and Priestley’s interest in science intensifies.
1767 – “History of Electricity” was his first scientific work.
1770s – Began his work on the nature and properties of gases.
1791 - His openly expressed views as a minister were considered seditious by both the English authorities and citizens. They destroyed his house and laboratory. This event was the deciding factor that led him to emigrate to the United States.
1794 – Arrived in the United States
February 6, 1804 - Died in Northumberland, PA, U.S.
Clark received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Antioch College in 1941 and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Physiology from the University of Rochester in 1944. Clark began his professional career as an Assistant Professor of biochemistry at his alma mater, Antioch College, in Yellow Springs, Ohio. When he left Antioch in 1958, he was head of the department. From 1955 to 1958, he held a simultaneous appointment the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine as a Senior In 1958, Clark moved to the University of Alabama Medical College as an associate professor of biochemistry. He later became professor of biochemistry in the same department. Clark became professor of research pediatrics at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Research Foundation in 1968 and remained there until he retired in 1991. Afterwards, he helped to found the company Synthetic Blood International, now known as Oxygen Biotherapeutics, Inc., which markets his invention Oxycyte. Other Clark inventions were put into production and marketed by Yellow Springs Instrument Company. He was a founding member of the Editorial Board of the scientific journal Biosensors & Bioelectronics in 1985.
Dr. Clark received the following recognition for his work: National Research Council Fellowship (1941). NIH Research Career Award (1962). Distinguished Lecturer Award, American College of Chest Physicians (1975). Honorary Doctor of Science, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (1984). Horace Mann Award for Service to Humanity, Antioch College (1984). Heyrovsky Award in Recognition of the Invention of the Membrane-Covered Polarographic Oxygen Electrode (1985). American Association for Clinical Chemistry Award for Outstanding Contributions to Clinical Chemistry (1989). American Heart Association Samuel Kaplan Visionary Award (1991). Enshrinement into the Engineering and Science Hall of Fame (1991). Pharmacia Biosensor’s Sensational Contributions to the Advancement of Biosensor Technology Award (1992). Daniel Drake Award for Outstanding Achievements in Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (1993). Elected to the National Academy of Engineering (1995). National Academy of Engineering Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize (2005).
He also theorized that air pollution could lead to poor health. Particularly, he researched the safety of coal mining and the presence of charcoal in miner's lungs. He moved to Australia around 1852, and then later to Fiji where he died as a result of contracting dysentery.
John Hutchinson, a surgeon, recognized that the volume of air that can be exhaled from fully inflated lungs is a powerful indicator of longevity. He invented the spirometer to measure what he called the vital capacity, ie, the capacity to live. Much later, the concept of the timed vital capacity, which became known as the FEV1, was added. Together, these two numbers, vital capacity and FEV1, are useful in identifying patients at risk of many diseases, including COPD, lung cancer, heart attack, stroke, and all-cause mortality.
Over the next two years, the couple used themselves as experimental subjects studying gas diffusion in the lungs. Marie took the novel step to use CO as a surrogate for O2 in many of these studies - the forerunner of the modern DLCO test.. The goal was to determine if the rate of O2 diffusion was sufficient to account for the O2 uptake even at high altitudes or during various pulmonary diseases. Thirty-five years later the CO uptake method, as described by Marie Krogh, was rediscovered and is now used extensively as a clinical test. Indeed, the rate constant for CO uptake is termed the Krogh constant (Kco).
Her husband, August, in his continued studies of respiration in animals and humans, became interested in the delivery of O2 from the capillaries to the tissue. The studies that followed led to his discovery of the regulation of capillary circulation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1920.
Marie earned the advanced Dr. med. from the University of Copenhagen in 1914, only the fourth woman in Denmark to receive an advanced medical degree. Her youngest daughter, Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, later became an eminent physiologist in her own right.
After she developed diabetes in the early 1920s, the couple began researching insulin production and developed a profitable technique that allowed them to start a pharmaceutical company that spent its profits on physiological and endocrinological research.
From 1953-1958, he was chief of anesthesia research at NIH, especially studying the use of hypothermia in surgery. He introduced the CO2 electrode and the first blood gas analysis system. In 1958, he joined UCSF in the Cardiovascular Research Institute and a new anesthesia department. In 1964 on sabbatical in Copenhagen, Severinghaus designed a blood gas slide rule relating oxygen pressure to hemoglobin saturation, and solving acid base and altitude problems. With help of many colleagues he published the standard human oxygen dissociation curve, with a simple equation, and accurate corrections for temperature and pH effects. His most visible contribution to respiratory care, however, was the development of the CO2 electrode which bears his name and is still in use today.
John Severinghaus has held an NIH Research Career Award from 1963 to 1991. His 350+ publications concern physiology of respiration and pulmonary and cerebral circulation, location of the medullary ventral surface CO2 chemoreceptors, physiologic effects of anesthetics, of high and low Pco2 and Po2, of high altitude on natives and newcomers on the lung, on cerebral blood flow, brain acid base balance and respiratory control. He developed and tested instruments such as pulse oximeters, brain and transcutaneous blood gas electrodes, introduced multiplexed mass spectrometry for multi-patient monitoring in surgery and through this, pioneered the introduction of computers in clinical anesthesia.
He served as NIH liason to the National Research Council of the National Academy of Science (1953-58), as member of an NIH study section (1961-66), and as respiration section editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology (1964-66). He continues to serve as referee for physiology, medicine and anesthesia journals.
He was named UCSF Faculty Research Lecturer in 1981, and received the first American Society of Anesthesiologists Award for Excellence in Research in 1986. He is an honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (UK) (1989), and Doctor of Medicine Honoris Causa of the University of Copenhagen (1979). Severinghaus continues research at UCSF, with interests in the biochemical causes of high altitude cerebral edema, the theory of the limits of oxygen delivery to muscle cytochrome during maximum work, methods of testing human hypoxia responses, and instrumentation in anesthesia.
He wrote 4 books, authored more than 300 articles for professional journals, and wrote a novel "The Spectacle of Man". In 1956 his textbook "Pulmonary Emphysema" was published.
In 1950, he was one of three a contributors to the first minimum standards for Inhalation Therapy training programs. He served on the Board of Advisors (BOMA's predecessor).
Dr. Barach was awarded the first Honorary membership in our Association.
Bob is the first RT to receive full professorship in an American medical school (Harvard). He worked with physicians around the world, establishing a bench and animal laboratory in the Department of Anesthesiology at Massachusetts General Hospital. He has mentored pulmonary and anesthesiology physician, fellows and RTs from the US, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.
His lasting accomplishments include research papers in journals primarily for physicians and lecturing at international meetings presenting original research. His presence at these meetings has brought recognition to the profession and elevated the status of respiratory therapist around the world. He has won numerous awards from physicians organizations and the AARC. He has served on the editorial boards of CCM,RC Journal and Intensive Care Medicine(ICM).
Bob was also the first RT Director to require all his employees to be RRTs. The profession has been enhanced by his vision to push educational and professional standards.
Dr. Kacmarek was awarded FAARC in 1998 and received the AARC's Jimmy A Young Medal in 2008.
He has held offices with the ATS,ALA,NAMDRC, Allergy and Asthma, and AACPR. He has authored or co-authored over 100 scientific articles, 80 books and 80 abstracts.
He has chaired AARC Consensus Conferences, served on the RC Journal Editorial Board since 1988, served as Vice Chair of the ARCF since 1992, and served 14 years on BOMA as a member and several terms as Chair.
Dr. MacIntyre has delivered hundreds of presentations at AARC International Congresses. He was awarded honorary membership in the AARC and is a recipient of the Jimmy A. Young Medal, AARC's highest award.
If you have an individual you'd recommend be nominated as a Legend of Respiratory Care, contact the appropriate Board with your justification outlining the individual's accomplishments and significant historic contributions to our profession.