Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing
IPPB is primarily prescribed to prevent atelectasis, to assist in clearance of secretions, and to deliver medications when other forms of therapy were unsuccessful.
IPPB delivers a prescribed gas at a positive pressure (usually 10-15 cm H20) for a specified time (usually 15 minutes.) Medications, such as bronchodilators, diluents, mucolytics, and antibiotics can be delivered via a nebulizer built into the breathing circuit. IPPB can be used on patients of all ages.
IPPB is most commonly delivered via a simple mouthpiece but flanged mouthpieces, shields/seals, oronasal masks, and 15 mm trach tube adapters can also be used, as applicable. Following the Sugarloaf Conference in 1974 where the scientific basis for IPPB was questioned, the use of IPPB significantly declined as other therapeutic techniques were substituted.
In May 1945, V. Ray Bennett filed for a patent for an “Oxygen Valve” for use in high altitude aircraft and for “administering oxygen and other gases in the therapeutic treatment of bronchial asthma, pulmonary edema, coronary thrombosis, coronary sclerosis, pneumonia, and numerous other physical ailments which have been found to be benefited by inhalational therapy.” The patent was granted October 4, 1949.
The Bennett was incorporated into the TV2P, PR-1, PR-2, AP-4, and AP-5 units.
A - corrugated rubber hose, B-Bendix Pressure Demand Regulator, C - Bennett Clinical Research Model X-2 Respirator, D- Bennett Face Mask
PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING ON CARDIAC OUTPUT IN MAN
Andre Cournand, Hurley L. Motley, Lars Werko, Dickinson W. Richards
American Journal of Physiology -- Legacy ContentDec 1947,152(1)162-174;
The patent was granted on February 6, 1951.
The patent was granted December 18, 1956.