1950s

1954 Mueller Morch Piston Respirator

1954 Mueller Morch Piston Respirator

Dr. Ernst Tier Morch, a Danish physician, developed a piston respirator during WWII in Denmark. After he relocated to the USA following WWII, he continued work on his ventilator designs. V. Mueller Company of Chicago began manufacture of the Morch respirator in 1954. The unit was designed to fit under a hospital bed. The unit was introduced when the polio epidemic in the United States was still at its peak and provided an alternative to iron lungs.
The ventilator provided a constant stroke volume up to 3600 mL directly to an uncuffed tracheostomy tube. It was the first ventilator to incorporate a humidifier

Morch Respirator

Morch Respirator

Morch Respirator

Morch Respirator

This image of a Mueller-Morch Piston Respirator appeared in the "Equipment News" section of a 1959 issue of the INHALATION THERAPY journal. The respirator was described as "an intermittent positive pressure respirator for tracheotomy cases requiring artificial respiration." The unit provided "a constant stroke volume from 0-3600 mL and pumped room air or oxygen mixture through a humidifier to the tracheostomy tube, with a specially designed check-valve in the system near the tracheostomy tube to ensure exhalation as soon as the desired stroke volume has been delivered to the lungs."

The respirator was recommended for use with uncuffed trach tubes.

1955 Draeger Spiromat

1955 Draeger Spiromat

The Spiromat ventilator was introduced by Draeger in 1955.

Image provided by Simone Burow at Draeger

Engstrom Respirator

Engstrom Respirator

In the early 1950s, the Engstrom Post-Op respirator was developed by Carl Gunnar Engstrom. The respirator could provide volume controlled ventilation to adults and pediatric patients.

1960s

Bennett PR-2

Bennett PR-2

The Bennett PR-2 was used often used to ventilate patients in early ICUs.

Image from Illinois Central College Archives 1999

Bird Mark 7

Bird Mark 7

The Bird ventilators, such as the Bird Mark 7 pictured here, were used to provide continuous ventilatory support to patients in the ICU.

Image from Dennis Glover

1960s Bird Mark 7  in ICU

1960s Bird Mark 7 in ICU

This photo from the 1960s was taken of a patient being ventilated with the Bird Mark 7 respirator.

Image from Louis Phillip Bell-Isle

1967 Bird’s Vent Patent

1967 Bird’s Vent Patent

On December 11, 1964, Forrest Bird and Harry Pohndorf filed a patent application for "Volume Limiting Ventilation Apparatus". The patent was awarded on October 17, 1967.

Air-Shields Respirator

Air-Shields Respirator

The Air-Shields Respirator is featured in this 1966 ad from the INHALATION THERAPY journal.

Air-Shields Ventilator in ICU

Air-Shields Ventilator in ICU

This 1960s photos shows an Air-Shields vent in use in ICU.

Image from Louis Phillip Belle-Isle

1964 Emerson 3PV

1964 Emerson 3PV

The Emerson 3PV respirator was introduced in 1964. J. H. "Jack" Emerson utilized a variety of components from his machine shop along with standard household items to create his ventilator.

Image from Charles Cornfield

Inside the Emerson 3PV

Inside the Emerson 3PV

When the left-hand side panel door to the Emerson cabinet opened, the hot plate, pressure cooker, copper mesh, trombone tubing, and wrenches are visible. The sigh mechanism utilized a vacuum cleaner motor. The cabinet itself was the housing for a washing machine.

Image from Joseph Goss

Emerson 3PV Warning

Emerson 3PV Warning

Image from Felix Khusid

Emerson Control Panel

Emerson Control Panel

Image from Jim Ciolek

Right View of Emerson 3PV

Right View of Emerson 3PV

The right side panel of the Emerson cabinet has been cut-away to reveal the internal components.

Image from Joseph Goss

Emerson Tidal Volume Control

Emerson Tidal Volume Control

Image from Felix Khusid

Emerson Spirometer

Emerson Spirometer

Emerson used a standard gas meter to monitor exhaled volumes on his ventilator. The mirror sat at an angle above the meter so one could view the movement of the indicator on the top of the gas meter which registered in 0.5 L increments between 0 and 3 L.

Image from Joseph Goss

Emerson Respiratory Alarm

Emerson Respiratory Alarm

Image from Felix Khushid

Emerson 3PV

Emerson 3PV

Image from Steve and Mary DeGenaro

Singer Gas Meter

Singer Gas Meter

This Singer modified gas meter was used in conjunction to measure exhaled minute volume.

Image from Jeff Anderson

1967 Bennett MA-1

1967 Bennett MA-1

Image from Felix Khushid

Bennett MA-1

Bennett MA-1

The Bennett MA-1 respirator's control panel.

Bennett MA-1

Bennett MA-1

Control panel covered

Image from Joseph Goss

MA-1 Control Panel

MA-1 Control Panel

Image from Felix Khusid

Bennett MA-1 Spirometer

Bennett MA-1 Spirometer

Bennett Spirometer Alarm

Bennett Spirometer Alarm

Image from Jim Ciolek

Bennett MA-1 Circuit Change

Bennett MA-1 Circuit Change

In this photo, students are demonstrating the teamwork required during a complete ventilator circuit change.

1970s

Drager Spiromat

Drager Spiromat

This ad for the Drager Spiromat ventilator appeared in the February 1970 issue of the INHALATION THERAPY journal.

Monitoring the MA-1

Monitoring the MA-1

As a student recorded the ventilator parameters on the patient's flowsheet, a clinical instructor monitored the student's performance.

KUMC RT Department

MA-1 Lab

MA-1 Lab

In this 1972 photo, Gary Peschka (far left) is shown reviewing the Bennett MA-1 controls with his inhalation therapy students at Parkland College, Champaign IL.

Image from Terry DesJardins

1975 Bennett SA-3 Alarm

1975 Bennett SA-3 Alarm

When the spirometer alarm was turned off, a red warning flag was raised on the Bennet SA-3 Spirometer Alarm. The red "OFF" flag was a visible reminder whenever the alarm was manually turned off.

Image from Joseph Goss

Rear view of MA-1

Rear view of MA-1

Circa 1975 (PEEP valve and updated spirometer alarm are present.)

Image from Joseph Goss

MA-1 Internal Components

MA-1 Internal Components

With the back panel of the Bennett MA-1 removed, the internal components are visible.

Image from Jim Ciolek

Bennett MA-1

Bennett MA-1

Image from Michael Grant

MA-1 with IMV and PEEP

MA-1 with IMV and PEEP

The PEEP attachment was offered in the mid 1970s.
Intermittent mandatory ventilation was introduced in the 1970s almost a decade after the MA-1 was released. Therapists adapted the MA-1 to allow IMV through "home-made" modifications as shown here.

MA-1 Side with PEEP Valve

MA-1 Side with PEEP Valve

Circa 1975.
The MA-1, PEEP valve, spirometer, condensation trap and cascade humidifier are shown.

Image from Joseph Goss

Ohio 560 Ventilator

Ohio 560 Ventilator

The Ohio 560 was introduced in the 1970s.

Image from James Sullivan

Ohio 560

Ohio 560

The Ohio 560 is shown ventilating a patient in ICU in the early 1970s.

Image from Louis Phillip Bell-Isle

Ohio 560

Ohio 560

The Ohio 560 Volume Controlled Respirator was featured in an ad in the December 1970 issue of the INHALATION THERAPY journal.

Ohio 560 Ventilator

Ohio 560 Ventilator

Emerson 3PV + PEEP

Emerson 3PV + PEEP

The PEEP attachment, which was added to the Emerson in the mid-1970s, is shown on the top right of this image. The amount of PEEP was determined by the height to which the water reservoir on the valve was filled.

Image from Joseph Goss

1975 Bourns BEAR

1975 Bourns BEAR

The Bourns BEAR ventilator was introduced in 1975.

Bourns BEAR 1

Bourns BEAR 1

Image from Jim Ciolek

BEAR 1 Control Panel

BEAR 1 Control Panel

Image from Jim Ciolek

Siemens-Elema Servo 900B

Siemens-Elema Servo 900B

Siemens-Elema introduced the Servo 900 ventilator in 1971. The Servo 900B pictured here was introduced circa 1979.

Image from Doug Pursley

Siemens-Elema Servo 900B

Siemens-Elema Servo 900B

Siemens-Elema 900 B in ICU

Siemens-Elema 900 B in ICU

A Siemens Servo 900 B is shown here in the ICU at KUMC.

Image from KUMC Respiratory Care Program

Siemens-Elema Servo 900B

Siemens-Elema Servo 900B

A respiratory therapist prepares the Servo 900 B for use.

Image from the archives of the KUMC Respiratory Care Program

Monaghan 225

Monaghan 225

Image from Doug Pursley

Monaghan 225

Monaghan 225

The Monaghan 225 ventilator

Image from Sheri Tooley

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