Pioneers
in
Oxygen
Therapy

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794), a French chemist, is considered the father of modern chemistry. He developed a new system of chemical nomenclature and is responsible for naming oxygen (acid-former) and a number of other elements.

Image from Dennis Glover

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786), a German-Swedish chemist, was the first to isolate "fire-air" (oxygen). Although his discovery was documented in letters to Antoine Lavoisier in 1774, his research was not submitted for publication until 1775.

Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) was an English scientist and theologian who authored more than 150 publications. His text, The History and Present State of Electricity, published in 1767 was considered a standard for over a century. Priestley published six volumes of Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air in which he documented the discovery of several gases including what later would be known as nitrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide. Priestley is credited with the discovery of soda water.His experiments with heated mercuric oxide resulted in his discovery of "deplogisticated air", later known as oxygen. It was discovered much later that Scheele's research was documented several months prior to Priestley's, thus the confusion over to whom the credit should be given for the discovery of oxygen.

Image from Dennis Glover

Thomas Beddoes

Thomas Beddoes

Thomas Beddoes (1760-1808) opened the Pneumatic Institute in Bristol, England. He used oxygen and nitrous oxide to treat asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, congestive heart failure and other maladies.

Image from Dennis Glover

John Haldane

John Haldane

John Scott Haldane (1860-1936) was a Scottish physiologist and physician who researched respiratory physiology. He wrote the first paper on the rational use of oxygen and was the first to describe the effects of oxygen on the pulmonary system. Haldane was the first to describe the effect of carbon dioxide on respiratory drive. His research on carbon monoxide in coal mines led to safer working conditions for miners. Haldane was involved in early research on hyperbaric oxygen exposure. He is credited with developing a method for measuring oxygen content and designing the modern oxygen mask.

Alvan Barach

Alvan Barach

Alvan Barach (1895-1977) was an American physician who laid the foundation for long term oxygen therapy in chronic pulmonary disease. He was involved with modification of early oxygen tents to include ice for cooling and soda-lime for carbon dioxide absorption. Dr. Barach developed the meter mask that allowed for adjustable oxygen concentrations. He developed a hood for delivery of continuous positive airway pressure. He also designed the first portable oxygen system for his patients with emphysema.

Click here to listen to an audio interview of Dr. Barach by Dr. Tom Petty, released by Breon Labaoratories in 1979: “Perspectives In Pulmonary Medicine: Dr. Alvan Barach” : http://perf2ndwind.org/mp3/alvan/archive-sound-alvan.html

Glenn Millikan

Glenn Millikan

Glenn Allan Millikan (1906-1947) , an American physiologist, developed an ear probe that used two wave-lengths of light in an ear oxygen meter. The device was used to detect hypoxia in pilots during World War II. Millikan coined the term "oximeter".

Image from Trudy Watson

Albert H. Andrews, Jr.

Albert H. Andrews, Jr.

Albert. H. Andrews, Jr. (1907-1986), an American otolaryngologist from Chicago, Illinois, authored the Manual of Oxygen Therapy Techniques, published in 1943 by Year Book. He described the fundamentals for an oxygen therapy department, which served as the model for oxygen therapy and future inhalation therapy departments. Dr. Andrews was the only physician to serve as President of the Association.

Image from Debra Skees

Leland C. Clark, Jr.

Leland C. Clark, Jr.

Leland C. Clark, Jr. (1918-2005), an American biochemist, is considered the "Father of Biosensors". His polarographic oxygen electrode (Clark electrode) was invented in 1954 and patented in 1959. Dr. Clark developed the glucose sensor used in diabetes management and a perflurocarbon based artificial blood. In 1951, he developed the first human heart-lung machine. Clark published more than 400 articles in biomedicine and bioengineering. He was credited with over 80 inventions and held over 25 patents.

Takuo Aoyagi

Takuo Aoyagi

Takuo Aoyagi (1936- ), a Japanese physiologic bioengineer, invented the pulse oximeter in 1972.

Image from Yoshihiko (Bill) Kashiwazaki

Thomas Petty, MD

Thomas Petty, MD

Thomas L. Petty (1932-2009), an American pulmonologist, was an international expert on pulmonary disease. He was instrumental in establishing home oxygen therapy and patient-friendly oxygen systems that enhanced the quality of life for oxygen-dependent patients. He published over 800 articles on pulmonary medicine and especially focused on the detection, management, and rehabilitation of COPD.
Dr. Petty
*conducted early research on ARDS.
*pioneered studies in ambulatory oxygen.
*advocated for spirometry programs for early detection of COPD.
*founded the Association of Pulmonary Program Directors (APD).
*served as founding Chairman of the National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP).
*founded a quarterly newsletter, Lung Cancer Frontiers.
*participated on numerous boards of professional associations and medical societies.
*served on on numerous editorial boards, including serving as Associate Editor of Respiratory Care.
*received numerous awards and honors throughout his career including being named an AARC Fellow (FAARC) in 1999, recipient of the Dr. Charles Hudson Award in 2004, and recipient of the AARC’s highest honor, the Jimmy A. Young Medal in 2003.

“Adventures of an Oxy-Phile 2”

“Adventures of an Oxy-Phile 2”

Visit the AARC Website to download and listen to "Adventures of an Oxy-Phile 2", written by Thomas L. Petty, MD with Robert McCoy, BS, RRT, FAARC, Louise Nett, RN, RRT, FAARC, and Kay Bowen.Patrick Dunne, MEd, RRT, FAARC narrated the book.

To download the "Adventures of an Oxy-phile 2" audiobook:
* Go to www.aarc.org
* Select and click on Resources on the menu
* On the Resources page under the Publications heading, click on "Adventures of an Oxy-phile 2"
* Click on the download bar to initiate the download of the audiobook. It may take a few minutes to download to your device.

Oxygen
Setups:
Getting
Started

Obtaining the Cylinders

Obtaining the Cylinders

When an order was received for oxygen therapy prior to piped-in systems or when medical gas mixtures were ordered, a cylinder had to be obtained from a secure cylinder storage area. Most of the storage areas were located outdoors near a hospital loading dock and were exposed to dust and debris. Since the respiratory therapy personnel at our hospital wore white uniforms and lab coats, we quickly learned to also transport supplies to wipe down the external cylinder prior to cracking and loading the cylinder onto the transport carts. The combined weight of the cylinder and cart often outweighed the staff member trying to transport it back to a clinical area, making us wish the “oxygen orderlies” of previous decades were still available. A full H cylinder of oxygen weighed 114 pounds while a full K cylinder weighed 135 pounds.

Humidifiers

Humidifiers

Oxygen humidifiers were reusable and were filled with distilled water. When oxygen rounds were made throughout the shifts, the therapists transported a cart filled with jugs of distilled water to refill the oxygen humidifier reservoirs.

Image from Kerry George

Tracking Oxygen Use

Tracking Oxygen Use

Prior to the introduction of meters that measured time of oxygen usage, nursing and respiratory personnel had to manually record each time a patient’s oxygen was turned on and off on a tag that hung from the patient’s flowmeter. The hang tags were checked on each shift’s oxygen rounds and collected daily. The hours of usage were tabulated by the respiratory department’s staff and the appropriate charges submitted for oxygen used.

Schedule of Oxygen Charges

Schedule of Oxygen Charges

Image from Charles McKnight

Pre-1994 No Smoking-Oxygen in Use Sign

Pre-1994 No Smoking-Oxygen in Use Sign

Whenever oxygen was set-up in a patient’s room, a sign was displayed on the door to indicate that smoking was not permitted in the room. Prior to 1994 when the Joint Commission mandate became effective requiring that hospitals go smoke free, patients and visitors were allowed to smoke in hospital rooms.

Image from Trudy Watson

Oxygen
Catheters

1920s Rubber Oxygen Catheter

1920s Rubber Oxygen Catheter

Urethral catheters were initially used to administer oxygen.

Image from Dennis Glover

1940s Nasal Catheter

1940s Nasal Catheter

Image from Steve & Mary DeGenaro

1958 Nasal Catheter

1958 Nasal Catheter

M.A. Tafilaw’s Patent for Nasal Catheter

1970s Nasal Catheter

1970s Nasal Catheter

Image from Dennis Glover

Oxygen
Cannulas

1920s Metal Nasal Cannula

1920s Metal Nasal Cannula

Image from Dennis Glover

1930s Stainless Steel Nasal Cannula

1930s Stainless Steel Nasal Cannula

Image from Dennis Glover

1956 Hudson’s Nasal Cannula Patent

1956 Hudson’s Nasal Cannula Patent

1960 Sheridan’s Nasal Cannula Patent

1960 Sheridan’s Nasal Cannula Patent

1960s Nasal Cannula Ad

1960s Nasal Cannula Ad

Cannula-Glasses Patent

Cannula-Glasses Patent

On December 13, 1985, a patent application was filed by inventors John and Gloria Timmons for "Eyeglass frame and nasal cannula assembly". The patent was granted on November 24, 1987.

Oxy-View Glasses

Oxy-View Glasses

Oxy-View glasses incorporate prescription eyewear with a nasal cannula.

Image from John Goodman

Oxyview Frames

Oxyview Frames

Image from John R. Goodman

1990s Nasal Cannula

1990s Nasal Cannula

Illinois Central College Archives,1999

1990s Pendant Reservoir Cannula

1990s Pendant Reservoir Cannula

Illinois Central College Archives, 1999

1990s Mustache Reservoir Cannula

1990s Mustache Reservoir Cannula

Illinois Central College Archives,1999

2000s High Flow Cannula

2000s High Flow Cannula

2000s Pediatric High Flow Cannulas

2000s Pediatric High Flow Cannulas

Bags
&
Masks

Haldane’s Four Person Mask

Haldane’s Four Person Mask

1914

Image from Dennis Glover

1917 Haldane’s Oxygen Mask

1917 Haldane’s Oxygen Mask

Haldane's mask was developed to treat the soldiers in WWI who were exposed to toxic gases. Many developed pulmonary edema and serious lung injury from the chemical warfare agents.

Image from Dennis Glover

1939 Boothby-Lovelace-Bulbulian (BLB) Mask

1939 Boothby-Lovelace-Bulbulian (BLB) Mask

The B-L-B mask was designed to supply military aviators with supplemental oxygen while allowing them to be able to talk on their radio microphones and eat while wearing the device.

1940s B-L-B Mask

1940s B-L-B Mask

The B-L-B (Boothy-Lovelace-Bulbulian) mask was designed for WWII aviators. This is an example of a face mask without the reservoir bag attached.

Image from Jim Ciolek

Early Aviation Masks

Early Aviation Masks

The face pieces of two early oxygen masks designed for aviators are shown.

Image from William LeTourneau

Non-rebreathing Mask

Non-rebreathing Mask

This nonrebreathing mask from the 1940s is part of the vintage respiratory equipment collection of Felix Khusid.

Image from Felix Khusid

1957 NCG Mask

1957 NCG Mask

Ohio Non-Rebreathing Mask

Ohio Non-Rebreathing Mask

This ad for the "Ohio Model 100 Non-Rebreathing Type Mask" appeared in the June 1959 issue of the Inhalation Therapy journal. The non-rebreathing mask featured a diluter to vary the oxygen concentration, a pliable wire rim, easy adaptability to partial rebreathing, and a special aspiration button to allow removal of fluids.

Ohio Semi-Disposable Mask

Ohio Semi-Disposable Mask

1950s

1959 Procedure for Oxygen by Bag and Mask

1959 Procedure for Oxygen by Bag and Mask

1959

Image from Charles McKnight

1958 Hudson’s Oxygen Mask Patent

1958 Hudson’s Oxygen Mask Patent

1958

1960s Hudson Oxygen Mask

1960s Hudson Oxygen Mask

1960s

SecO2 Therapy Mask

SecO2 Therapy Mask

The SecO2 mask from Sierra Engineering was featured in this ad from the October 1965 issue of the INHALATION THERAPY journal.

Non-Rebreathing Mask

Non-Rebreathing Mask

Simple
Masks

1959 Hudson ad

1959 Hudson ad

This oxygen therapy equipment ad for Hudson products appeared in the September 1959 issue of the Inhalation Therapy journal (Vol. 4 No.3, p3)

1960s Simple Mask

1960s Simple Mask

1960s

Mask with Chin Strap Patent

Mask with Chin Strap Patent

1980

1990s Simple Mask

1990s Simple Mask

1990s

Air
Entrainment
Masks

1960s Mix-O-Mask

1960s Mix-O-Mask

1960s ad

1960s VentiMask

1960s VentiMask

1960s

1974 Air Entrainment Mask

1974 Air Entrainment Mask

Ball and Fehr’s Patent for Medical Face Mask -1974

Mid-1970s Vickers Venturi Mask

Mid-1970s Vickers Venturi Mask

1970s

Image from Dennis Glover

1990s Air Entrainment Masks

1990s Air Entrainment Masks

1990s

Image from Illinois Central College Archives, 1999

1990s Air Entrainment Mask

1990s Air Entrainment Mask

1990s

Image from Illinois Central College Archives, 1999

Transtracheal
Oxygen
Catheters

1992 SCOOP Transtracheal Oxygen Catheters

1992 SCOOP Transtracheal Oxygen Catheters

The SCOOP (Spofford-Christopher-Oxygen-Optimizing-Program) was introduced in 1992. Oxygen is delivered via a 9 Fr indwelling catheter.

Image from John Goodman

1990s Transtracheal Oxygen Catheter

1990s Transtracheal Oxygen Catheter

1990s

Image from Illinois Central College Archives, 1999

Images to share?

Images to share?